Diagnosis, treatment, and causes of azoospermia in men

Over the past few years, the number of couples experiencing fertility problems has grown significantly. More and more men suffering from infertility are diagnosed with azoospermia, their number has grown to 20%. This disease is characterized by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. Disruptions in the process of spermatogenesis or problems with sperm transport can lead to this result. Azoospermia is of several types - obstructive azoospermia, non-obstructive (secretory azoospermia), and combined azoospermia. Treatment depends on the specific type of disease and the reasons for its development.

Obstructive azoospermia

The diagnosis of obstructive azoospermia means that there is a problem with the sperm count in the ejaculate. In obstructive azoospermia, healthy sperm are produced in normal quantities by the testes, but for some reason, they cannot physically enter the ejaculate. There can be several reasons for this disease:

  • Icon Tick Inherited Genetic Disorders

  • Icon Tick Transferred Infectious Diseases

  • Icon Tick Injuries that have damaged the vas deferens

  • Icon Tick Infectious Diseases

  • Icon Tick Varicocele - a disease expressed in hypertrophied expansion of the veins of the scrotum.

  • Icon Tick Previous operations on the genitals or abdominal cavity.

  • Icon Tick A vasectomy is a voluntary operation to cut, ligate, or cauterize the vas deferens for male contraception.

Non-obstructive or secretory azoospermia

Secretory azoospermia occurs when the spermatogenesis process itself is disrupted. No new sperm are formed in the testes. There are many causes of non-obstructive azoospermia:

  • Icon Tick Hormonal imbalance

  • Icon Tick Genetic abnormalities

  • Icon Tick Taking special medications (steroids or antibiotics);

  • Icon Tick Chemotherapy

  • Icon Tick Bad habits - alcohol, smoking, drug addiction

  • Icon Tick Radiation exposure, including for medicinal purposes;

  • Icon Tick Aspermia - a deviation in which a man, due to functional or neurological disorders, cannot reach orgasm;

  • Icon Tick Retrograde ejaculation, with this deviation, the seminal fluid does not enter the ejaculate, but into the bladder;

  • Icon Tick Kallmann's syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, or other inherited diseases.

In addition to these factors, non-obstructive azoospermia can be triggered by exposure of a man's body to heavy metals and pesticides, inflammatory processes in the testicles, and their epididymis, non-descent of the testicles into the scrotum, hypothermia, or keeping the genitals at too high a temperature.Combined azoospermia, which is usually more difficult to treat, is a combination of obstructive and secretory azoospermia.

The main symptom of azoospermia is the prolonged absence of a planned pregnancy. That is, if a couple, having given up contraception, cannot have a child for more than 12 months, this means not only that a woman should consult a gynecologist, but also that there is a possibility of a malefactor of infertility. It is impossible to diagnose azoospermia on your own; an examination in a clinical setting is necessary. However, there are some symptoms that should make a man make an appointment with a specialist - andrologist: clear or watery ejaculate, excessive body hair, soft or too small testicles, signs of varicocele.

To diagnose azoospermia, a man will need to pass tests and undergo some examinations:

  • Icon Tick Visual examination of the genitals

  • Icon Tick Rectal examination of the prostate

  • Icon Tick General blood analysis

  • Icon Tick Blood test for hormones

  • Icon Tick Spermogram

  • Icon Tick Genetic testing for abnormalities

  • Icon Tick Testicular biopsy

  • Icon Tick Post-ejaculatory urine analysis

  • Icon Tick Ultrasound and x-ray examinations; etc

Azoospermia diagnosis

Treatment of azoospermia

When diagnosed with azoospermia, treatment depends, first of all, on the causes of the disease identified during examinations. As a rule, the treatment of azoospermia with folk remedies is not used, since the disease is serious and requires a serious approach from both the doctor and the patient himself. However, treatment of azoospermia with folk remedies can help, for example, with low sperm fertility, identified by spermogram results. Along with taking drugs prescribed by a doctor, a man can change his diet by including dishes rich in important vitamins and microelements in the menu; change the lifestyle, work and rest schedule, which will not only improve health but also restore men's health.

Traditional therapies for azoospermia:

  • Icon Tick Taking hormonal drugs for hormonal imbalance;

  • Icon Tick Drug treatment of infectious diseases associated with the intake of drugs (antibiotics);

  • Icon Tick Surgical treatment to restore the patency of the vas deferens, surgical treatment of varicocele by blocking the dilated veins;

  • Icon Tick Puncture of healthy sperm for IVF or artificial insemination, if obstructive azoospermia.

Unfortunately, some types of azoospermia make it impossible to conceive in vivo. In such cases, assisted reproductive medicine comes to the aid of the spouses, namely, IVF or artificial insemination with the husband's sperm. Having diagnosed a disease in which the restoration of spermatogenesis is impossible or the quality of sperm is too low, the doctor may offer the couple to use the service of artificial insemination with donor sperm.

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